Evaluarea durerii la efectuarea sonohisterosalpingografiei 3D

 Pain evaluation during 3D hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography

First published: 22 martie 2021

Editorial Group: MEDICHUB MEDIA

DOI: 10.26416/Gine.31.1.2021.4331


The evaluation of the tubal permeability for the infertile patient is the initial stage in the diagnostic conduct, prac­ticed in the outpatient department, with minimally pain­ful invasive intervention in the absence of the anes­the­tic support. Thanks to the technological advances of the equip­ment, as well as the finding of safe and more sta­ble con­trast media, the ultrasound procedure with con­trast sub­stance, histerosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy), led to remarkable results in terms of concordance with lapa­ro­scopic chromopertubation, exceeding hys­te­ro­sal­pin­go­­graphy in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

hysterosalpingocontrast sonography, pain, infertility, tubal blockage


Evaluarea permeabilităţii tubare la pacienta infertilă este o etapă iniţială în conduita diagnostică şi care, practicată în am­bu­latoriu, presupune o intervenţie minim invazivă du­re­roasă în absenţa suportului anestezic. Graţie progreselor tehnologice ale aparaturii, cât şi găsirii unor medii de contrast sigure şi cât mai stabile, procedura ecografică cu substanţă de contrast, sonohisterosalpingografia (HyCoSy), a condus la obţinerea unor rezultate remarcabile în ceea ce priveşte gradul de concordanţă cu cromopertubaţia laparoscopică, depăşind histerosalpingografia în ceea ce priveşte sensibilitatea şi specificitatea.


Repeated pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is considered the main cause of tubal obstruction, the probability of developing infertility being up to 43% after three acute episodes(1). Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause oedema, adhesions, obstruction and dilation of the fallopian tube with fluid. This can impede the normal function of receiving oocytes from the tubal fimbria, which leads to fertility problems. Therefore, in the diagnosis of female infertility, the assessment of tubal permeability is mandatory. To assess tubal permeability, several tests are available, including hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy with a staining test, fertiloscopy, selective salpingography, and hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy)(2). HyCoSy is a noninvasive ultrasonographic procedure based on the introduction of a positive contrast fluid which increases the contrast of ultrasound in the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes that can be seen by transvaginal ultrasound. Despite the benefits, HyCoSy is definitely an operator-dependent process. Precise transverse probe movements are essential to identify the passage of fluid through the fallopian tubes during injection(3). In addition, 2D HyCoSy does not provide the image of the fallopian tubes entirely, the potential tubular spasm can be confused with tubal occlusions, and the fluid or airflow through the fallopian tubes can be misinterpreted due to bowel movements. 4D HyCoSy overcomes some of these limitations because it improves the visualization of the movement of the contrast medium in the fallopian tube(4).

Materials and method

From January 2019 to July 2019, a total of 15 infertile patients scheduled for minimally invasive surgery were selec­ted. The inclusion criteria were as follows: proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle (days 5-10), no sexual contact or use of barrier methods during preprocedure, negative vaginal se­cre­tion cultures, negative urine culture, absence of vaginal ble­eding. The exclusion criteria were: acute salpingitis or pelvic inflammatory disease, ultrasound-visible tubal pathology (hydro­salpinx), suspicious gynecological tumors, previous ma­jor surgery in the gynecological field. All ultrasound exa­mi­nations were performed using GE Medical Systems ultrasound, Voluson E8 Expert ultrasound (equipped with dedicated 3D imaging software and CCI mode) and using a 5-9 MHz trans­va­ginal probe. The detailed ultrasound examination was performed in longitudinal and transverse planes and any ute­rine, tubal and ovarian abnormalities were observed(5). The contrast medium was a diluted sulphur hexafluoride solution. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the threshold of pain experienced by patients at different times of the ultrasonographic procedure if the fallopian tubes were permeable, obstructed or only one was functional. This was done by determining the numerical value of pain at the time of insertion and fixation of the Foley probe (T1), at the time of injection of the contrast agent (T2) and 30 minutes after the end of the procedure (T3). The analysis was performed later, after confirming the concordance between the results of the ultrasound test with the laparoscopic procedure.

The best known one-dimensional acute pain assessment tools are the visual analog scale (VAS), the numerical rating scale (NRS) and the verbal (four-point) scale (VRS). They work best for the patient’s subjective feeling of pain intensity, and the first two, VAS and NRS, are superior to VRS. The patients were familiar with the use of the numerical instrument before starting the procedure, and the results were recorded and then classified according to the recommendations of Breivik et al. in four categories: 0 = the absence of pain; 1-3 = reduced pain; 4-6 = medium pain; 7-10 = intense pain. The NRS scale is also useful for VAS in the subjective assessment of acute pain, and can be used for up to 24 hours(6). In the initial analysis, we took into account the establishment of the absolute numerical value, as well as the percentage of pain felt by patients at each moment of each procedural time, regardless of the test result, to identify for the studied group the general values of pain felt.


The pain was felt by all patients at different times. At 30 minutes after injection, all patients considered the procedure painless or with mild pain (NRS 0-3) – Table 1.

Table 1. The median pain value measured using NRS scale during the 3D HyCoSy procedure
Table 1. The median pain value measured using NRS scale during the 3D HyCoSy procedure

When present, pain was described as uterine, abdominal cramps or menstrual-like pain (dysmenorrhea).

In the second part of the analysis, we divided patients according to secondary or primary infertility status. Thus, nine patients with primary infertility and six patients with secondary infertility were studied.

The conclusions of the obtained results are interesting. The pain felt at the time of T1 is significantly more intense in the group of patients with secondary infertility, which apparently seems peculiar, considering their history. The explanation may take into account the fact that often these patients had to use a Foley pediatric no. 8, compared to the value of 6, which was the size used especially in patients with primary infertility. The baloon was fixed with extra 0.5 ml more serum, in patients who had a history of second-trimester births or abortions to prevent backflow or elimination of the Foley catheter. Subsequently, the recorded values were similar in the two groups, both at the time of injection and at distance (Table 2).

Table 2. Procedure pain in diferent stages of the tubal testing
Table 2. Procedure pain in diferent stages of the tubal testing

In the last part of the study, we compared the scores obtained according to the patency tubal status, dividing the group into three subgroups: patients in whom both tubes had contrast passage, with a single permeable tube or bilateral tubal obstruction (Table 3 and Table 4).

Table 3. Perception of pain in patients with varying degrees of ultrasound-evaluated tubal permeability (T2)
Table 3. Perception of pain in patients with varying degrees of ultrasound-evaluated tubal permeability (T2)


Table 4. Comparative median pain score in relation with tubal permeability
Table 4. Comparative median pain score in relation with tubal permeability

From the demographic and clinical variables assessed, only the impairment of tubal permeability was significantly correlated with the pain felt during injection (T2) measured by the NRS scale. Regarding tubal obstruction, the mean pain scores were 4±1 for bilateral passage, 5±1.58 for unilateral obstruction (Figure 1) and 5.33±2.5 for bilateral obstruction (Figure 2).

Figure 1. Unilateral patency
Figure 1. Unilateral patency


Figure 2. Bilateral obstruction
Figure 2. Bilateral obstruction

It was noted that the most intense pain occurred during the injection of the contrast solution, being mentioned by patients, in general, as of numeric value. This may be due in particular to the need to use an increased volume of solution in the 3D/4D procedure. Fortunately, at T3, 30 minutes after the end of the procedure, the pain was either absent or of low intensity, which confirms the opportunity to perform it in an outpatient setting, without the need for postprocedural medication.  

Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests.


  1. Eschenbach D. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Glob Libr Women’s Med. 2008. Available at:
  2. Sora-Mărgineanu C, Toader O, Suciu N. Fertiloscopy evaluation of oviduct disease and patency. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Romanian Society for Minimally Invasive Surgery in Ginecology and Annual Days of the National Institute for Mother and Child Health “Alessandrescu Rusescu”, Nov 1-3, Bucharest, Filodritto Editore - Proceedings. 2019:567-70. 
  3. Panchal S, Nagori C. Imaging techniques for assessment of tubal status. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2014;7(1):2–12.
  4. Chen S, Du X, Chen Q, Chen S. Combined real-time three-dimensional hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography with B mode hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography in the evaluation of fallopian tube patency in patients undergoing infertility investigations. Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:9408141. 
  5. Exacoustos C, Pizzo A, Lazzeri L, Pietropolli A, Piccione E, Zupi E. Three-dimensional hysterosalpingo contrast sonography with gel foam: Methodology and feasibility to obtain 3-dimensional volumes of tubal shape. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2017;24(5):827-32. 
  6. Breivik H, Borchgrevink PC, Allen SM, Rosseland LA, Romundstad L, Breivik Hals EK, Kvarstein G, Stubhaug A. Assessment of pain. Brit J Anaest. 2008;101(1):17–24.

Articole din ediţiile anterioare

STERILITATE | Ediţia 1 15 / 2017

Fenotipurile ovarului micropolichistic şi răspunsul la tehnicile de reproducere umană asistată - Fertilizare in vitro

Lucia Luchian, Dragoș Marinescu

Sindromul ovarelor micropolichistice (OMPC) este afecţiunea endocrinologică cel mai frecvent întâlnită la femeile în pe­rioa­da reproductivă. Ca ur...

20 martie 2017
GINECOLOGIE | Ediţia 11 (1) / 2016

Prezervarea fertilităţii la o pacientă cu polifibromatoză uterină şi endometrioză ovariană. Prezentare de caz

Octavian Munteanu, Alexandra Munteanu, Prof. Dr. Elvira Brătilă, Florina Păuleț, Dragoş Davițoiu, Luiza Rădulescu, Bogdan Dorobăț, Monica Mihaela Cîrstoiu

Polifibromatoza uterină este o patologie frecventă, ale cărei diagnostic şi tratament sunt foarte bine documentate, existând numeroase ghiduri elab...

15 martie 2016
STERILITATE | Ediţia 3 17 / 2017

Sindromul ovarelor polichistice, cea mai frecventă cauză de infertilitate

George Alexandru Filipescu, Andreea Boiangiu, Amelia Milulescu, Nicoleta Clim, Oana Solomon

Sindromul ovarelor polichistice reprezintă principala cauză de infertilitate la femei. Etiologia acestei patologii nu este complet elucidată, princ...

05 octombrie 2017
STERILITY | Ediţia 3 25 / 2019

Consideraţii de actualitate privind rolul histeroscopiei în diagnosticul şi tratamentul adenomiozei la pacientele infertile

E.A. Bordea, A. Carp-Velişcu, Cristiana Odukoya, Diana Mihai, Bogdan Marinescu, Prof. Dr. Elvira Brătilă

O definiţie histologică clasică pen­tru adenomioză este invazia miometrului de glande sau stro­mă endometrială mai mult de 2,5 mm de la nivelul zon...

20 septembrie 2019